安吉拉李杜克沃斯（Angela Lee Duckworth）是宾夕法尼亚大学华裔心理学家，美国天才奖取得者。她在27岁时辞去了纽约一份前途无量的作业—企业管理咨询师，挑选到一所公立校园教七年级学生数学。
Angela Lee Duckworth: Grit: The power of passion and perseverance
When I was 27 years old, I left a very demanding job in management consulting for a job that was even帅哥男同志 more demanding: teaching. I went to teach seventh graders math in the New York City public schools. And like any teacher, I made quizzes and tests. I gave out homework assignments. When the work came back, I calculated grades.
What struck me was that IQ was not the only difference between my best and my worst students.Some of my strongest performers did not have stratospheric IQ scores. Some of my smartest kids weren't doing so well. And that got me thinking. The kinds of things you need to learn in seventh grade math, sure, they're hard: ratios, decimals, the area of a parallelogram. But these concepts are not impossible, and I was firmly convinced that every one of my students could learn the material if they worked hard and long enough.
After several more years of teaching, I came to the conclusion that what we need in education is a much better understanding of students and learning from a motiva贝韦伦兔tional perspective, from a psychological perspective. In education, the one thing we know how to measure best is IQ. But what if doing well in school and in life depends on much more than your ability to learn quickly and easily?
So I left the classroom, and I went to graduate school to become a psychologist. I started studying kids and adults in all kinds of super challenging settings, and in every study my question was, who is successful here and wh凶恶帝国y? My research team and I went to West Point Military Academy. We tried to predict which cadets would stay in military training and which would drop out. We went to the National Sp郁闷弟elling Bee and tried to predict which children would advance farthest in competition.
We studied rookie teachers working in really tough neighborhoods, a赤尸为什么害丹辰子sking which teachers are still going to be here in teaching by the end of the school year, and of those, who will be the most effective at improving learning outcomes for their students? We partnered with private companies, asking, which of these salespeople is going to keep their jobs? And who's going to earn the most money?In all those very different contexts, one characteristic emerged as a significant predictor of success. And it wasn't social intelligence. It wasn't good looks, physical health, and it wasn't IQ. It was grit.
Grit is passion and perseverance for very long-term goals. Grit is赏金猎人,成功的第一要素不是智商情商，而是意志！,九元航空 having stamina. Grit is sticking with your future, day in, day out, not just for the week, not just for the month, but for years, and working really hard to make that future a reality.Grit is living life like it's a marathon, not a sprint.
A few years ago, I狗狗生殖器 started studying grit in the Chicago public schools. I asked thousands of high schoo赏金猎人,成功的第一要素不是智商情商，而是意志！,九元航空l juniors to take grit questionnaires, and then waited around more than a year to see who would graduate. Turns out that grittier kids were significantly more likely to graduate, even when I matched them on every characteristic I could measure, things like family income, standardized achievement test scores, even how safe kids felt when they were at school. So it's not just at West Point or the National Spelling Bee that grit matters. It's 我和林妹妹also in school, especially for kids at risk for dropping out.
To me, the most shocking thing about grit is how little we know, how little science knows, about building it. Every day, parents and teachers ask me, "How do I build grit in kids? What do I do to teach kids a solid work ethic? How do I keep them motivated for the long ru郭锈n?" The honest Yippianswer is, I don't know.
关于我自己来说，关于意志最让我震动的作业莫过于关于意志，咱们知之甚少，在培育意志上，科学对了解的知道又是多么匮乏。每天都有家长和教师来问我：“我怎样做才干培育孩子的意志呢? 该做些什么才干教授给孩子们真实的作业道德？ 又该怎样调集他们长时间的积极性呢？” 赏金猎人,成功的第一要素不是智商情商，而是意志！,九元航空老实说，我不知道。
What I do know is that talent doesn't make you gritty.Our data show very clearly that there are many talented individuals who simply do not follow through on their commitments. In fact, in our data, grit赏金猎人,成功的第一要素不是智商情商，而是意志！,九元航空 is usually unrelated or even inversely related to measures of talent.
So far, the best idea I've heard about build淄博一致陶瓷有限公司ing grit in kids is something called "growth mindset."This is an idea developed at Stanford University by Carol Dweck, and it is the belief that the ability to learn is not fixed, that it can change with your effort. Dr. Dweck has shown tha金洪法t when kids read and learn about the brain and how it changes and grows in response to challenge, t你色hey're much more likely to persevere when they fail, because they don't believe that failure is a perm赏金猎人,成功的第一要素不是智商情商，而是意志！,九元航空anent condition.
So growth mindset is a gre替代姐姐at idea for building grit. But we need more. And that's where I'm going to end my remarks, because that's where we are. That's the work that stands before us. We need to take our best ideas, our strongest intuitions, and we need to test them.We need to measure whether we've been successful, and we have to be willing to fail, to be wrong, to start over again with lessons learned.
In other words, we need to be gritty about getting our kids grittier.